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Microgrid and E – Mobility Management Systems

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With the advancement in the commercial and technological sector, the need for a revolution in the electrical power generation system has been unavoidable. Through the introduction of microgrids, the unprecedented change is now possible. Microgrids are like a localised, smaller-scale version of macro-grids, that integrates the distributed energy resources and aims to provide a faster and a lot more efficient method for energy production than the traditional one.

E-mobility systems refer to the concept of vehicles running on batteries, which can be charged through EV charging stations made available to the travellers en-route. Microgrids are of significant importance in the management of E-mobility systems since providing constant electrical power throughout the road distantly using traditional power plants can result in massive energy losses during transmission. By reaching out to CIOT, you can avail the best management services present in the market for microgrids and E-mobility systems.

Smart Charging Sequencing

Installing EV Charging poles or stations without an efficient system to manage the power flow and their load on the electrical grid can lead to disastrous outcomes. Hence, CIOT, in collaboration with the leading energy-producing giants, offers you a smart charging sequencing which primarily connects the entire E-mobility system with the internet. Through this way, the operators can restrict the power to the stations which are at that moment not in use, thereby saving massive amounts of energy.

Energy Production Automisation

Microgrids bring in the concept of harnessing the energy through renewable sources and storing it at local levels as well. As a result, not only the environment will experience a wave of healthy change, but also the production of energy can be executed on-site, which will comparatively be a faster and much efficient method. Moreover, storing it for later use will help tackle unexpected faults in power lines.

Interruptible Load Management

With so many utilities established in an electrical grid, managing the distribution of the power supply to the customers and their demand is highly crucial. Especially during peak times when the energy consumption is highest, stabilising the grid afterwards can be a daunting task.

Interruptible Load (IL), a program under the Distribution Management System (DMS), covers customers with non-firm services shedding load during an energy grid emergency for which they are provided with secondary incomes. With CIOT as your partner, you can avail the most-suitable IL service as per your choice.


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You seem to present biogas as flare gas. What about syngas using pyrolysis from municipal solid waste, tire derived fuel, waste vegetable oil, etc.? Those feedstocks are a pipeline of stored-energy fuels. Just in time waste processing using distributed generators can eliminate large storage dumps.

Pyrolysis gas is typically not suitable for combustion in reciprocal engines due to its composition.  

What percentage of microgrids use reciprocating engines for combined heat and power and what percentage use turbines for combined heat and power and why?

Most installations less than 10 megawatts will use reciprocating engines as they are more flexible in operation and have higher fuel efficiency compared to turbines. Turbines are used in larger plants or where production steam is the priority

Discuss mixing solar and wind with reciprocal engines for microgrids.

Reciprocal engines are a perfect fit to complement solar and wind. If electricity generation from wind or solar drops, reciprocal engines can be started to produce power.

Any thoughts regarding the use of fuel cells?

Capital cost for fuel cells remains very high compared to other technologies. Unless there are external factors such as government incentives, fuel cells see limited use in micro grids compared to other technologies.

What about battery recycling?

Typically, the battery supplier offers a recycling program for the batteries at the end of their life.

Power quality usually refers to the waveform and phase relationships on the alternating current lines. And the presence or absence of transient spikes/surges. What elements of a microgrid would manage the transients produced by engaging and disengaging the different generators, storage and loads to maintain acceptable power quality?

Power quality requirements are site specific and are taken into consideration when choosing the mix of generation assets.

How do you balance reactive power?

In the examples spoken about in the webinar, the reactive power is controlled via the voltage controller on the alternator. The information is gathered within the microgrid controller and then sent to the resource(s) best used to address the reactive power. Then the controller for that(those) resource(s) adjusts the settings of the automatic voltage regulation to properly share reactive power as demanded by the Microgrid controller.

What design/feasibility software do you use?

MTU uses the HOMER tool to model microgrids.

What’s a typical payback period including tax, interest, insurance, etc.?

Every installation is different, therefore a site-specific analysis would need to be done to include all factors affecting payback.

Can the MTU on-site Energy controls synchronize and share load without the use of a third-party equipment?

Yes, if the genset and battery storage solutions are supplied by MTU. If there are third-party generator sets, then custom engineering will develop defined interfaces to allow for this functionality.

How has the restriction on greenhouse gas emission impacted the usage of natural gas/diesel genset as a microgrid?

As noted in the webinar, emissions are one of the first parameters to address when designing a microgrid. Generally, emissions are something that have to be looked at from a systems approach for each site and what is the best solution for the client.

Do electric utilities have connection requirements for battery use? If so, what do utility requirements tend to look like?

Most utilities have interconnect requirements for battery system, just as they do for generator sets. Our recommendation would be to inquire through the local utility to get this information.

For the 2-megawatt photovoltaic system, how much space for battery storage needed?

This depends on how much of the electricity generated by the PV needs to be stored and how much is consumed. Webinar 201 will talk more about battery storage. For reference purposes, a battery storage system with 2.000 kilowatt peak power and 1,000 kilowatt/hour capacity would come as a 40–foot ISO container.

What’s the renewable aspect of the hospital example? And is the biogas considered renewable in the water treatment plant?

The hospital in this case did not have a renewable aspect. Yes, biogas is considered to be a renewable fuel.

What kind of coordination had to be done with the utility to create a storm preparedness mode?

First and foremost, regulatory compliance must be met from both the federal and regional requirements. Once those areas are addressed the requirement for the connection to the local utility need to be addressed.

Is net metering typically included to ensure you are getting value for the kilowatt-hour you are producing? Or how do you otherwise match your production to your load to ensure you are not overproducing/wasting energy produced?

Yes, most installations are behind the meter with net metering done by the controls to ensure that the generation matches site load and no power is exported.

How do you account for load power-factor when sizing in kWe?

Typically, the generator sets are sized for continuous operation thus they have 100% load factor capability.

How is engine maintenance handled if only 4 units provided and 4 required for load?

Maintenance is done during times when the plant load is low, eg. weekends or nights.

When speaking of military applications, are you talking about static locations like a military base or dynamic applications like a forward operating base? Do you have any examples?

Within the U.S., these would be stationary applications at permanent bases.

Please share your thoughts regarding gas microturbines and how they fit in the lineup of microgrid resources.

Engine driven generators are far more widely used in microgrids as they offer better fuel efficiency, lower cost/kilowatt and cover a wider range of power nodes compared to microturbines.

Which are the common energy sources used in a microgrid for a remote location (without grid)?

Diesel generators combined with solar and battery storage.

Are the MTU on-site Energy controllers only compatible with MTU sources or are they compatible with other vendors, like Caterpillar or General Electric Co.?

Yes, it can be done with project–specific engineering.

Is it possible to export excess microgrid power out into the utility grid?

This depends on the arrangement with the local utility and what rates they will pay. This may also differ depending on what generation asset is producing power as renewable power may have attractive rates for export. Typically, microgrids will however operate behind the meter or in island mode

What is the common voltage level for the microgrids you are considering to develop?

Most are between 480 volts to 13 kilovolts.

On slide 30, does the wet-stack mitigation require a dedicated load bank or can the engine just take on more of the load while the other sources ramp-down?

There are several solutions to mitigate wet stacking. Being this is a known condition it can be programed into the microgrid controller to adjust load from one resource to another. Thus, the resource that is entering a wet stacking condition can take on a larger percentage of the load. If there was a load bank on-site that could be used as well, but it probably isn’t the most efficient solution for a microgrid, but could be a part of the solution for contingency planning if needed. The final solution would depend on what power generating resources are available at the specific site.

Do you see natural gas prices rising in the near future to the point where the return on investment will be much more difficult to achieve?

With domestic oil & gas production continuing to grow, gas prices are projected to stay stable in the near future. Profitability will also depend on electricity price developments compared to natural gas prices. Also called spark spread. If both prices rise, it will have less of an impact on ROI.

Can a microgrid system also be used for emergency power for health care or other facilities that require emergency power?

Typically, microgrid systems are not used as an emergency power source. The reason for this is mostly due to the cost. However, it may use one power generating resource to reduce the electrical demand from the utility and if the utility fails have additional resources that can be dispatched when needed. For example, a health care facility may use a combined heat and power unit 24/7 as a base load electrical demand and heat recovery. When the utility fails the site may have diesel units (or some other asset) that can be dispatched to allow the facility to operate like normal.

How can we enrol into Interrupted Load Program?

How can we provide interruptible load in Singapore's wholesale electricity market?

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